Nei zvinhu zvakanakisa zvekugadzirwa nekona coronavirus kumeso zvakaoma kuziva

Misiyano mumachira, kukwana, uye mushandisi maitiro zvinogona kukanganisa kuti masiki angadzivirire sei kupararira kwehutachiona

rakanyorwa naKerri Jansen

Kubvumbi 7, 2020

Nezviitiko zve COVID-19 zvinokura nekukurumidza muUS uye humbowo huri kuwedzera hwekuti hutachiona hunokanganisa, SARS-CoV-2, inogona kupararira nevanhu vane hutachiwana vasati vaona zviratidzo, iyo US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention yakakurudzira musi waApril 3 kuti vanhu pfeka machira akafukidza kumeso munzvimbo dzeruzhinji. Iyi nhungamiro shanduko kubva panzvimbo yepakati yepakati iyo vanhu vane hutano vaingoda kupfeka masiki kana vachichengeta munhu anorwara. Kurudziro iyi zvakare inotevera mafoni achangoburwa nenyanzvi pane vezvenhau uye mamwe mapuratifomu kune veruzhinji kuti vape zvisiri zvemishonga, machira masiki kubatsira kudzikisa kutapurirana kwenoverengera coronavirus.

"Nhengo dzeveruzhinji dzinofanirwa kupfeka machira asina kumeso kumeso pavanoenda kuruzhinji mune imwezve nzira yekudyidzana yekudzora kupararira kwehutachiona," Tom Inglesby, director weJohns Hopkins Center for Health Security, akatumira mashoko munaKurume 29.

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Idzi nyanzvi dzinovimba kuti chiyero ichi chinoderedza mwero wekutapuriranwa kwezvirwere nekuwedzera imwe dura rekudzivirira munzvimbo dzinonetsa kuremara munharaunda, senge muzvitoro, uku uchichengetera mashoma zvigadzirwa zvekurapa-giredhi midziyo yevashandi vezvehutano.

Indaneti iri kuputika nemasikisi-ekusonesa mapatani uye mazano ekuti ndezvipi zvinhu zvakanakisa kushandisa, asi mibvunzo yakawanda isina mhinduro inoramba iri pamusoro pekuti SARS-CoV-2 inopararira sei uye chii chakanakira kupfeka kupfeka kwemasikisi asiri ezvekurapa kunogona kupa vanhu uye neruzhinji. Nekuda kwemusiyano uripo muzvinhu zvemumba, dhizaini dhizaini, uye hunhu-hwekupfeka-masiki, nyanzvi dzinoyambira kuti tsika iyi haisi yekutsiva kutenderera kwenzanga.

"Zvakakosha kusimbisa kuti kuchengetedza mamita matanhatu kubva munharaunda kunogara kuchikosha kudzora kupararira kwehutachiona," maererano newebhu reCDC rewebhu pakushandiswa kwemachira akafukidza kumeso.

Kunzwisisa izvo mask inofanirwa kuita kudzivirira iye akapfeka uye avo vakavakomberedza kunotanga nekunzwisisa kuti SARS-CoV-2 inopararira sei. Nyanzvi dzinofunga kuti vanhu vanopfuudza hutachiona kune vamwe zvakanyanya kuburikidza nemadonhwe ekufema. Aya magirobhu anotapuriranwa emate nemamota, akadzingwa nekutaura uye kukosora, akareba uye anofamba madaro akaganhurirwa-anowanzo gara pasi nedzimwe nzvimbo mukati me 1-2 m, kunyangwe hazvo ongororo imwechete yakaratidza kuti kuhotsira uye kukosora kunogona kukurudzira ivo vari kure (Indoor Air 2007, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1600-0668.2007.00469.x). Masayendisiti haasati asvika pakubvumirana pamusoro pekuti hutachiwana hweSARS-CoV-2 hungapararirawo kuburikidza nemaaerosols madiki, ayo ane mukana wekupararira kure nekumira mudenga. Mune kumwe kuyedza, vaongorori vakaona kuti hutachiona hunogona kuramba huchitapukira mumaerosols e3 h munzvimbo dzinodzorwa dzebhu (N. Engl. J. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMc2004973). Asi chidzidzo ichi chine parinogumira. Sezvakataurwa neWorld Health Organisation, vaongorori vakashandisa michina ine hunyanzvi kugadzira maekisesaizi, ayo "anoratidza kukosora kwevanhu."

Masiki ekuzvigadzirira uye mamwe asina kurapwa aigona kushanda semasikisi ekuvhiya, ayo akagadzirirwa kudzikisira hutachiona hweanopfeka kune vanhu nenzvimbo dzakatenderedza nekuvhara mweya wekufema kubva kune anoapfeka. Mhepo yekufema inosanganisira mate uye madonhwe emakamuri, pamwe nemaaerosols. Masiki aya, anowanzo gadzirwa nebepa kana zvimwe zvinhu zvisina kurukwa, anokwana akasununguka kumeso uye anotendera mweya kuti udonhedze mukati memakona kana mushandisi akafema. Nekuda kweizvozvo, ivo havatariswe sedziviriro yakavimbika pakurwisa kufema kwehutachiona.

Mukupesana, zvine mutsindo zvinokodzera N95 masiki akagadzirirwa kuchengetedza iye akapfeka nekubata tupukanana tunotapukira mumatanda akaomarara eakaipisisa polypropylene tambo. Iyi tambo inoiswawo nemagetsi kupa "kuwedzera kuomerera" uku uchichengetedza mweya wekufema. Masiki eN95, ayo kana akashandiswa nemazvo anogona kusefa ingangoita 95% yezvidimbu zvidiki zvinofurwa nemhepo, zvakakosha mukuchengetedza kwevashandi vezvehutano avo vanogara vachisangana nevanhu vane hutachiona.

Kugona kuvhara mweya wekufema - semasikisi emachira uye masiki ekuvhiya anogona - kwakakosha nekuda kwehumbowo huri kukura hwekuti vanhu vane hutachiwana hweSARS-CoV-2 asi vane zviratidzo zvinyoro kana vasina chiratidzo vanogona kuparadzira hutachiona vasingazivi.

"Rimwe rematambudziko nehutachiona hunokonzera COVID-19 nderekuti dzimwe nguva vanhu vanogona kuva nezviratidzo zvakadzikama zvavangatombozviona, asi zvinototapukira zvikuru," anodaro Laura Zimmermann, director wezvekurapa kwekudzivirira Rush University Medical Boka muChicago. "Uye saka vari kushingaira kurasa hutachiona uye vanogona kutapurira vamwe."

Zimmermann anoti nhengo dzeChicago nharaunda inochengetedza hutano vakurukura nezve mukana wekugovera masiki ejira kune varwere vanorwara kwete masiki ekuvhiya, kuchengetedza zvigadzirwa zvekuchengetedza (PPE). "Chifukidzo chemucheka chinogona kubatsira chaizvo kana mumwe munhu aine hutachiona, uye urikuedza kuva nemadonhwe," anodaro.

Mukutaurirana kwazvino, timu yepasi rese yevaongorori inoshuma kuti masiki ekuvhiya anogona kudzikisa zvakanyanya huwandu hwehutachiona hunoburitswa mumhepo nevanhu vane zvirwere zvekufema, kusanganisira kutapukirwa nemamwe marona (Nat. Med. 2020, DOI: 10.1038 / s41591-020 -0843-2).

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzinokurudzira kupfeka kwakapararira kwemasiki asiri ekurapa vanonongedza kuti dzimwe nyika dzakabudirira kudzora kumuka kwadzo dzakashandisawo tsika iyi. "Masiki ekumeso anoshandiswa zvakanyanya nenhengo dzeveruzhinji mune dzimwe nyika dzakabudirira kugadzirisa kuputika kwadzo, kusanganisira South Korea neHong Kong," maererano nemushumo waKurume 29 pamhinduro yeUS coronavirus kubva kuAmerican Enterprise Institute.

Linsey Marr, nyanzvi mukutapurira chirwere ichi mumhepo kuVirginia Polytechnic Institute uye State University, anoti kufunga kwake kwakashanduka mumavhiki apfuura, uye haachafungi kuti vanhu vanorwara chete ndivo vanofanirwa kupfeka mamask. Kunyangwe mamwe masks ekumeso angabatsira kudzikisira kusvikwa kwemuridzi nemavhairasi, anodaro, chinangwa chekutanga ndechekuderedza kupararira kweSARS-CoV-2 kubva kuvanhu vane hutachiona.

"Kana munhu wese akapfeka mamask, ipapo hutachiwana hushoma hunopararira kuburikidza nemhepo uye nepamusoro, uye njodzi yekutapurirana inofanira kunge iri shoma," akanyora muemail kuC &EN pamberi penyaya itsva yeCDC.

Asi vanhu vari kufunga nezvekugadzira yavo masiki vakatarisana nesarudzo dzakawanda mukugadzirwa uye kusarudzwa kwemachira, uye zvinogona kunge zvisiri nyore kuona kuti ndedzipi sarudzo dzinogona kushanda zvakanyanya. Neal Langerman, nyanzvi yezvemakemikari yekuchengetedza iyo parizvino iri kupa mazano makambani pane coronavirus matanho ekudzivirira, anoti kuwanda kwemidziyo yemumba kunogona kusiyana zvakanyanya uye nenzira dzisingatarisirwe, zvichiita kuti zvive zvakaoma kuona zvakajeka kuti ndechipi chinhu chakanakira kumeso yekugadzira kumeso. Iyo yakasimba sei chinhu yakarukwa inogona kuve chinhu, pamwe nerudzi rwefibisi inoshandiswa. Semuenzaniso, tambo dzepanyama dzinogona kuzvimba kana dzikaratidzwa kune hunyoro kubva kumweya wekufema, kuchinja mashandiro ejira nenzira dzisingatarisirike. Iko zvakare kune yakasarudzika kutengeserana-kure pakati pehukuru hwe pores mumucheka uye nekufema-izvo zvidiki zvinokuvadza zvigadzirwa zvakare zvichanetsa kufema kuburikidza. Mugadziri weGore-Tex, isina kureruka, microporous zvinhu zvinowanzo shandisirwa zvipfeko zvekunze, akagamuchira bvunzurudzo dzemibvunzo yekuti zvinhu zvacho zvinokwanisa kusefa here SARS-CoV-2. Iyo kambani yakaburitsa chirevo chekuyambira pamusoro pekushandisa izvo zvigadzirwa zvemamaki ekumeso echiso nekuda kwekushomeka kwemhepo.

"Dambudziko nderekuti machira akasiyana ane maratidziro akasiyana, uye zvinoita kunge paine zvakawanda zvingasarudzwa pamusika," Yang Wang, mutsvakurudzi weaerosols paMissouri University of Science and Technology, tweeted. Wang ari pakati pevaongorori vanounganidza dhata rekutanga pamusoro pekusefetwa kwezvinhu zvisina kurapwa muchiedza chekuparara kwazvino.

Masayendisiti akambomutsa pfungwa yekushandisa masiki akagadziridzwa kurwisa chirwere chinokurumidza kupararira chehutachiona, uye ongororo dzinoverengeka dziripo dzakaongorora kushanda kwefirita yezvinhu zvakasiyana zvemumba. Imwe ongororo yemachira anowanikwa kazhinji, anosanganisira akawanda maT-shirts, masweatshirt, matauro, uye kunyangwe homwe square, yakawana izvo zvinhu zvakavharirwa pakati pe10% uye 60% yezvikamu zveaerosol zvakafanana muhukuru nemweya wekufema, zvinoenderana iko kusefa kwekuchenesa kwemamwe masiki ekuvhiya uye masiki eguruva (Ann. Occup. Hyg. 2010, DOI: 10.1093 / annhyg / meq044). Ndezvipi zvakagadziridzwa zvinhu zvakasvinwa zvidimbu zvakanakisa zvakasiyana zvichienderana nesaizi uye velocity yezvibvunzo zvekuyedza. Zvidzidzo zvakare zvinoona kuti kukwana kwemask uye mapfekero ayo anogona kukanganisa zvakanyanya kushanda kwayo, chimwe chinhu chakanetsa kudzokorora mumarabhoramu mamiriro.

ICDC inokurudzira kushandisa machira mazhinji ekugadzira kumeso. Muvhidhiyo, Chiremba weU.S. General Jerome Adams anoratidza maitiro ekugadzira chifukidzo chakadai kubva kuzvinhu zvakawanikwa zvakatenderedza imba, senge T-shati yekare.

Kunyangwe paine misiyano mukugadzirwa kwemasiki kunoitwa, kune humwe humbowo hwekuti kunyangwe kudzikiswa kwechikamu chekupararira kunogona kubatsira kudzikisa huwandu hwehutachiona hutachiwana muhuwandu hwevanhu. Mune ongororo yakaitwa muna2008, vaongorori vekuNetherlands vakaona kuti kunyangwe masiki akagadziridzwa aisashanda seanofema, "chero mhando yekushandisa masiki ingangodzora hutachiona hwehutachiona uye hutachiona hwehutachiona pahuwandu hwevanhu, kunyangwe vasina kukwana uye vasina kukwana. kuomerera ”(PLOS Imwe 2008, DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0002618).

Langerman anoti kunetsekana kwake kukuru kune veruzhinji vakapfeka mamask ndekwekuti, sekune chero PPE, kushandisa chifukidzo kumeso kunogona kupa iye anochengeta pfungwa yekunyepa yekuchengeteka, uye vanogona kunge vasina kuomarara nedzimwe nzira dzekudzivirira. Nyanzvi dzakadzokorora kukosha kwekuchengetedza daro repanyama re6 ft (1.83 m) kana kure kure nevamwe vanhu, vangave vachiratidza zviratidzo kana kwete. Langerman anoyambira pamusoro pekuisa kuvimba kwakanyanya mumasiki ejasi rakagadzirwa kuti uzvidzivirire kana vamwe.

"Ndozvinouya izvi," anodaro. "Kana munhu achizogadzira mweya wavo wega, vanonyatsonzwisisa here njodzi mukusarudzwa kwavo, kuitira kuti vagoziva kuti zvii zvakasarudzika zvavakasarudza?" Handina chokwadi chekuti mhinduro yacho ichava hongu. ”


Post nguva: Dec-30-2020